The Redistribution of Resources in Internationalized Intra-State Peace Processes by Comprehensive Peace Agreements and Security Council Resolutions
Cindy Daase – 2011
The (illegal) exploitation and (bad) management of high value resources like timber, diamonds, gold, minerals and oil constitute key-factors for the inflammation, continuation and termination of numerous intra-state conflicts. Since the 1990s these conflicts have been increasingly settled by the conclusion of comprehensive peace agreements between the conflicted state and belligerent non-state parties. At the example of the Lomé, Accra and Ouagadougou Agreement, which were negotiated to terminate the conflicts in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Côte d’Ivoire, the paper describes and analyzes whether and how these agreements addressed the redistribution of conflict-resources during the peace process. In the course of this documentation, the paper finds a strong involvement of the UN Security Council when it comes to the redistribution of resources and the implementation of all three agreements that goes beyond addressing an immediate threat to peace and security. Focusing on this involvement of the Security Council to exert a strong pull towards the compliance of the parties with these agreements, the paper will discuss the legal nature of the example peace agreements and of the specific obligations concerning the redistribution of resources. The paper finds that, under certain circumstances, internationalized comprehensive peace agreements, with a strong endorsement and involvement of the Security Council, can create effective legal obligations for the parties with respect to the redistribution and treatment of resources during the transformation from conflict to peace.