This research project focuses on the implementation of two international agreements on patent protection, one for pharmaceuticals (TRIPS) and the perseveration of indigenous knowledge, the other for traditional medicine (CBD). In areas of limited statehood, western actors are strongly involved with pertinent rulemaking and projects that strengthen institutions and capacities. However, when contributing to the relevant governance networks, western actors attempt to insert their own interests (extended scope of patentability, access to indigenous resources), which may interfere with local actors’ preferences. Given the potential clash of ideas and interests, we assume dialectical processes of mutual adaptation and resistance. Moreover, we expect that the final policy-outputs are shaped by power relations between the actors who participate in the implementation networks. During the course of the project, we will analyze the presumed causal relationships through two case studies in India and Brazil.