The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a market mechanism that was created by an international regime, but its successful implementation relies on effective CDM governance within its host countries. What kinds of carbon governance patterns are appropriate for reaching the goals of the Kyoto Protocol? Taking China—the leading CDM host country worldwide—as a case study, this article examines the patterns of Chinese carbon governance. The hypothesis brought forward is that the Chinese government is apt in utilizing the international market mechanism CDM for its own priorities by adding own national requirements. The dominating carbon governance pattern is state regulation, while private actors from the business community and from civil society play only a minor role. The article concludes by discussing the implications of the Chinese variety of carbon governance for the post-2012 climate regime.